Shockwave lithotripsy or uteroscopy are techniques that are utilised for stones smaller in size. But for the stones that are larger in size and trapped in kidney or upper ureter, Per-Cutaneous Nephro-Lithotomy abbreviated as PCNL is a technique used for their removal. These stones are formed due to crystallisation of chemical compounds in the urine stream.


Characteristically, the stretch of the surgical procedure is one to two hours. This surgery is carried out by making a small incision of 1 cm in the flank area of patient’s body. Further, a tube is inserted via incision into the kidney under X-ray guidance.
After the insertion of tube, a telescope is then passed through the tube in order to visualise the stone, break it into pieces and is then removed from the body. Moreover, if the stone is still not crushed then lithotripsy will be carried out for the removal of the stone pieces.


• Less post-operative pain
• A shorter stay the hospital
• Back to routine in no time, when everything goes well.
• Less attempts are required for this technique to be successful.


• Bleeding
• Infection
• Tissue / Organ Injury
• Loss of kidney function
• Scar tissue formation
• Failure to Remove the Stone